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This is a dictionary of algorithms, algorithmic techniques, data structures, archetypal problems, and related definitions. Algorithms include common functions, such as Ackermann's function. Problems include traveling salesman and Byzantine generals. Some entries have links to implementations and more information. Index pages list entries by area and by type. The two-level index has a total download 1/20 as big as this page.
Don't use this site to cheat.
To define or correct terms, please contact Paul E. Black. We do not include algorithms particular to business data processing, communications, operating systems or distributed algorithms, programming languages, AI, graphics, or numerical analysis: it is tough enough covering "general" algorithms and data structures.
Some terms with a leading variable, such as n-way, m-dimensional, or p-branching, are under k-. You may find useful entries in A Glossary of Computer Oriented Abbreviations and Acronyms.
After more than a decade of service, I plan to end my editing of the DADS web site. Everything will move to the FASTAR group at Stellenbosch University (South Africa), University of Pretoria, and Eindhoven University (Netherlands).
To look up words or phrases, enter them in the box, then click the button.
We thank those who contributed definitions as well as many others who offered suggestions and corrections.
Because of operational changes for better web security in February 2009, the URL for DADS changed to http://www.itl.nist.gov/div897/sqg/dads/ Policy changes in September 2010 led to changing the URL to http://xw2k.nist.gov/dads/ Machine changes in February 2011 changed the URL to http://xlinux.nist.gov/dads/ The older URL http://www.nist.gov/dads/ is an alias which should continue to refer to the latest URL. We regret any inconvenience this may cause.
Here are some references on algorithms and data structures.
The Stony Brook Algorithm Repository, which has algorithms organized by type, succinct, illustrated definitions, and ratings of sites with implementations.
Google Code University has two courses on algorithms, including algorithm analysis.
Data Structures and Algorithms is a wonderful site with illustrations, explanations, analysis, and code taking the student from arrays and lists through trees, graphs, and intractable problems.
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics or MathWorld.
The Sphere online judge (SPOJ) has about 6600 small programming tasks or puzzles and 900 contests. Even nicer it automatically assesses your programs written in 40 languages.
The Computing Research Repository (CoRR). Sixth International Conference on Fun With Algorithms (FUN 2012). The conference "is dedicated to the use, design, and analysis of algorithms and data structures, focusing on results that provide amusing, witty but nonetheless original and scientifically profound contributions to the area."
[AS98] Pankaj K. Agarwal and Micha Sharir, Efficient Algorithms for Geometric Optimization, ACM Computing Surveys, 30(4):412-458, December 1998.
[ATCH99] Algorithms and Theory of Computation Handbook, Mikhail J. Atallah, ed., CRC Press LLC, 1999.
[CLR90] Thomas H. Cormen, Charles E. Leiserson, and Ronald L. Rivest, Introduction to Algorithms, MIT Press, 1990.
[GBY91] Gaston H. Gonnet and Ricardo Baeza-Yates, Handbook of Algorithms and Data Structures -- in Pascal and C, 2nd edition, Addison-Wesley, 1991.
[GCG92] P. Gupta, P. P. Chakrabarti, and S. Ghose, The Towers of Hanoi: Generalizations, Specializations, and Algorithms, Intern. J. Computer Math., 46:149-161, Gordon and Breach Science Publishers S.A., 1992.
[GG98] Volker Gaede and Oliver Günther, Multidimensional Access Methods, ACM Computing Surveys, 30(2):170-231, June 1998.
[GT97] Michael T. Goodrich and Roberto Tamassia, Data Structures and Algorithms in Java, 2nd edition, John Wiley & Sons, 1997.
[Graef06] Goetz Graefe, Implementing Sorting in Database Systems, ACM Computing Surveys, 38(3), Article 10, September 2006.
[Hirv01] Mika Hirvensalo, Quantum Computing, Springer-Verlag, 2001.
[HS83] Ellis Horowitz and Sartaj Sahni, Fundamentals of Data Structures, Computer Science Press, 1983.
[Knuth97] Donald E. Knuth, The Art of Computer Programming, Addison-Wesley, volumes 1 and 2, 2nd edition, 1997.
[Knuth98] Donald E. Knuth, The Art of Computer Programming, Addison-Wesley, volume 3, 2nd edition, 1998.
[Leda98] LEDA (accessed 4 December 2002).
[Sedge97] Robert Sedgewick, Algorithms in C, Addison-Wesley, 1997.
[Stand98] Thomas Standish, Data Structures in Java, Addison-Wesley, 1998.
[Sund98] Daniel M. Sunday, A Very Fast Substring Search Algorithm, Communications of the ACM, 33(8):132-142, August 1998.
[Vitt01] Jeffrey Scott Vitter, External Memory Algorithms and Data Structures: Dealing with Massive Data, ACM Computing Surveys, 33(2):209-271, June 2001.
[Wier98] Roel Wieringa, A Survey of Structured and Object-Oriented Software Specification Methods and Techniques, ACM Computing Surveys, 30(4):459-527, December 1998.
Here are citation examples and an explanation of credit.
Robots, please index all term pages, including spelling variants.
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